Lead and Water

Faucet with water glass image

# of Lead Service Lines replaced in 2021 = 981*
# of Lead Service Lines replaced in 2020 = 887
# of Lead Service Lines replaced in 2019 = 1,000
# of Lead Service Lines replaced in 2018 = 933
# of Lead Service Lines replaced in 2017 = 622

Total: 2017 - 2021* = 4,423
* 2021 figures reflect work completed as of 12/31/21

Check our records to see if a property has a lead service line

Households with lead service lines whose occupants include these at-risk persons should drink and cook only with tap water filtered with an NSF 53 certified filter:

  • Children under 6, especially bottle-fed infants
  • Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant (ages 15-45)
  • Women who are breastfeeding

These customers may be eligible for a free NSF 53 certfified filter from the Milwaukee Health Department, (414) 286-2165.

If you are not using a filter, drink and cook only with cold water that has well-flushed for at least three minutes to reduce your risk of lead exposure. 

Recommendations for all who have a lead service line:

  • Drink and cook only with water from the cold water tap.
  • Run your water until it is cold before drinking and cooking with it.
  • Regularly unscrew and rinse the screen, or aerator, on the end of each faucet.
  • When there is ongoing construction in your area, such as water main replacement or other street and sewer projects, flush household plumbing at the end of each work day during construction and when the project is completed. Find instructions here
  • Replace your lead service line and plumbing with copper.

There is no safe level of lead in the body. Lead can be unsafe when it is swallowed or breathed in. Lead can affect learning, mental health, and increase the risk of diseases later in life. Lead is especially dangerous to very young children when it is ingested or inhaled. Lead has been used to make many products including paint, pipes and plumbing materials, ceramics and cosmetics.

Milwaukee’s drinking water contains no lead when it leaves our treatment plants. But lead is often present in water because lead can dissolve into the water as it sits in lead service lines that connect your house to the water main in the street. Lead also may be present in interior plumbing and fixtures. In the 1900s, lead was cheap, easy to work with and a readily available material to use for services lines and plumbing. 

Lead-Safe Water Guide brochure 

Guía del agua sin peligro de plomo

Frequently Asked Questions and Answers about Lead Service Lines

Preguntas y Respuestas Frecuentes sobre las Líneas de Servicio de Plomo 

Milwaukee water has been in compliance with EPA rules for lead since 1996.

In 1991, the US EPA introduced the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) to regulate lead and copper in drinking water. In compliance with this rule, and under the direction of the EPA and Wisconsin DNR, Milwaukee Water Works implemented corrosion control in 1996 to reduce lead and copper in tap water. Optimized corrosion control is achieved by adding orthophosphate, a common food addditive approved by the FDA, which coats the pipes and internal plumbing fixtures and significantly reduces lead and copper from dissolving into tap water.

Since corrosion control began in Milwaukee, lead levels have decreased by more than 50%. This graph shows the 90th percentile and median lead levels from Milwaukee EPA Lead and Copper Rule compliance sampling beginning in 1993. You can see how lead levels dropped after corrosion control began. 

chart shows lead decrease


Milwaukee's Program to Replace Lead Service Lines 

Milwaukee Water Works (MWW) has been systematically replacing lead service lines since 2017. Despite these efforts, the Milwaukee community has been underserved and has experienced disproportionate impacts from potential drinking water lead exposure due to limited funding needed to replace the remaining 70,000 lead service lines in the City of Milwaukee.  These lead service lines represent over 40% of the water service lines in Milwaukee.

Milwaukee Code of Ordinances § 225-22.5 requires a full replacement of the lead service line with copper from the water main to the curb stop (city-owned) and from the curb stop to the meter (customer-owned) when:
•    A child care facility or school is located at the property;
•    A leak or failure is found on either the customer-owned section or the city-owned section of the lead service line;
•    When the city-owned section is replaced for any reason, including water main replacement or paving projects; or
•    A property owner chooses to replace their customer-owned section of lead service line.

MWW offers water sampling prior to and following each LSLR and conducts “find and fix” investigations if lead concentrations at the tap remain high following the replacement.

Who pays for the Lead Service Line Replacement when replacement is required by the City of Milwaukee?
A cost-share is available for properties with 1-4 dwelling units if they choose to use the city contractor to do the work. The cost-share, effective March 1, 2021, is $1,843.00. The owner can pay their cost-share as a special assessment over 10 years. Replacement of the city-owned sections of lead service lines are paid by water utility rate revenue because the section is utility property.

Owner-Initiated -- If an owner decides to replace a lead service line when it is not required, the owner must hire a licensed contractor, pay 100% of the cost, and is not eligible for a special assessment or cost-share. 

Sources of lead may be present in internal plumbing. Property owners may want to hire a licensed plumber to replace that plumbing.

We provide instructions for flushing plumbing and a voucher for a filter pitcher and replacement cartridges to the customer(s) at a property. The filter is to be used for drinking and cooking water during and up to 30 days after the project is completed in the following construction projects in which a lead service line will not be replaced:

  • A planned or emergency water shut-off affects a property with a lead service line.
  • A property with a lead service line is within the vicinity of a water main replacement, but is not directly connected to the section of main being replaced.
  • A Department of Public Works sewer replacement or street reconstruction is proximate to a property with a lead service line.

Answers to Frequently Asked Questions 

Corrosion control prevents lead from dissolving from lead service lines and lead plumbing into the water​​​​​​

Water filters

Nutrition and health

Additional information

Milwaukee Water Works

Ask a Question -- Report a problem

Customer Service Center


24-Hour Control Center





 Email (non-emergency)

 Zeidler Municipal Building, 841 N. Broadway, Room 406, Milwaukee, WI 53202

 Monday - Friday, 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM

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A Sept 2017 EPA report quantified and compared contributions of lead from air, soil/dust, water and food to children's blood lead levels.

Children living in older homes with lead-based paint hazards by far have the most exposure to leadFor 1- to 6- year olds in the top 90-100 percentile, more than 70% of the lead in their blood was from soil and dust.

The contribution of lead from food was 20% and drinking water was 10%. For infants, soil and dust contribute to 50% of the lead in blood, while 40% was from water and 10% from food.

The EPA is evaluating approaches to setting a health-based benchmark for lead in drinking water. 

Together, Let's Get the Lead Out

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