Climate Sources

The following sources correspond with the City of Milwaukee Climate Vulnerability Report.

Read the report here

  1. NOAA National Centers for Environmental information, Climate at a Glance: National Time Series.  Plot produced by the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts.
  2. World Health Organization.  (2018, February 1). Climate Change and Health. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health..
  3. Podesta, J. (2019, July 25). The climate crisis, migration, and refugees.  https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-climate-crisis-migration-and-refugees/#:~:text=In%202017%2C%2068.5%20million%20people,after%20droughts%2C%20and%20intensified%20storms and Institute for Economics & Peace. (2020). Ecological Threat Register 2020: Understanding Ecological Threats, Resilience and Peace. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/ETR_2020_web-1.pdf.
  4. Fountain, H. (2020, May 4). Billions Could Live in Extreme Heat Zones Within Decades, Study Finds. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/04/climate/heat-temperatures-climate-change.html
  5. Burke, M; Hsiang, SM; and Miguel, E. (2015). Climate and Conflict in Annual Review of Economics 7: 577-617.
  6. http://www.impactlab.org/research/climate-and-conflict/
  7. vii. US Department of Commerce and NOAA. (2015, April 5). 2010, July 22, Flash Flooding & Tornado Outbreak. National Weather Service. https://www.weather.gov/mkx/072210_flashflooding-tornadoes
  8. Thomson, P. (2019, August 27). From Tribune files: Photos show damage caused by August 18 flooding in La Crosse area. La Crosse Tribune. https://lacrossetribune.com/news/local/from-tribune-files-photos-show-damage-caused-by-august-2018-flooding-in-la-crosse-area/collection_2c25194e-178e-5ee3-bd91-0c616f98ba72.html#4.
  9. Retrieved from https://floodfactor.com/property/2910-n-1st-st-milwaukee-wisconsin/550299976_fsid#local_risk_overview on April 12th, 2021.
  10. Patz, J., Lois, A., Clifford, S., Brossard, D. and Maibach, E. (2020, October 20). Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming Our Health in Wisconsin. P. 15. https://ghi.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/168/2020/10/Medical-Alert-Climate-Change-is-Harming-Our-Health-in-Wisconsin.pdf
  11. Patz et. al.  Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming Our Health in Wisconsin. P. 8. https://ghi.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/168/2020/10/Medical-Alert-Climate-Change-is-Harming-Our-Health-in-Wisconsin.pdf.
  12. xii. Patz et. al. Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming Our Health in Wisconsin. P. 9. https://ghi.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/168/2020/10/Medical-Alert-Climate-Change-is-Harming-Our-Health-in-Wisconsin.pdf.
  13. U.S. Global Change Research Program. (2021). About Heat Waves. Retrieved from https://www.globalchange.gov/browse/indicators/us-heat-waves on May 10th, 2021.
  14. xiv. Patz et. al. Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming Our Health in Wisconsin. P. 8. https://ghi.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/168/2020/10/Medical-Alert-Climate-Change-is-Harming-Our-Health-in-Wisconsin.pdf.
  15. Heilman, K. and Kahn, M. (June 2019). The Urban Crime and Heat Gradient in High and Low Poverty Areas.  National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 25961. https://www.nber.org/papers/w25961
  16. xvi. Truth, C. (2021, February 27). Acute Food Shortages are Disproportionately Pushing More Black and Latinx Families to the Brink of Starvation. Milwaukee Independent. http://www.milwaukeeindependent.com/syndicated/acute-food-shortages-disproportionately-pushing-black-latinx-families-brink-starvation/
  17. Kiefer, O. (2020, February 24). Opinion: ‘Food insecurity’ doesn’t affect just “them,” it affects us all.  Milwaukee Neighborhood News Service. https://milwaukeenns.org/2020/02/24/opinion-food-insecurity-doesnt-affect-just-them-it-affects-us-all/.
  18. Hunger Task Force. Retrieved from https://www.hungertaskforce.org/about-hunger/hunger-in-milwaukee/?sfw=pass1617734015 on April 12th, 2021.
  19. xix. Patz et. al. Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming Our Health in Wisconsin. P. 14. https://ghi.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/168/2020/10/Medical-Alert-Climate-Change-is-Harming-Our-Health-in-Wisconsin.pdf.
  20. Patz et. al.  Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming Our Health in Wisconsin. P. 19. https://ghi.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/168/2020/10/Medical-Alert-Climate-Change-is-Harming-Our-Health-in-Wisconsin.pdf.
  21. xxi. Patz et. al. Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming Our Health in Wisconsin. P. 20. https://ghi.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/168/2020/10/Medical-Alert-Climate-Change-is-Harming-Our-Health-in-Wisconsin.pdf.
  22. NOAA NCEI. (2020, January 8). 2010-2019: A landmark decade of U.S. billion-dollar weather and climate disasters [Infographic]. NOAA Climate. https://www.climate.gov/news-features/blogs/beyond-data/2010-2019-landmark-decade-us-billion-dollar-weather-and-climate.
  23. Solly, M. (2018, November 26). Climate Change Will Cost Taxpayers Billions In Near Future, Federal Report Shows. Smithsonian.com. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/new-report-offers-stark-assessment-climate-changes-impact-us-180970885/.
  24. Goodell, J. (2018, February 25). Welcome to the Age of Climate Migration. Rolling Stone. https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/welcome-to-the-age-of-climate-migration-202221/.
  25. Retrieved from https://www.loveexploring.com/gallerylist/91927/incredible-places-that-will-be-underwater-by-2050 on March 162021 and Coastal Risk Screening Tool, coastal.climatecentral.org
  26. U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit. Storm Surge.  Retrieved from https://toolkit.climate.gov/topics/coastal/storm-surge#:~:text=Additional%20impacts%20of%20storm%20surge,threat%20of%20death%20by%20drowning on May 6th, 2021.
  27. U.S. Global Change Research Program. (2021). About Heat Waves. Retrieved from https://www.globalchange.gov/browse/indicators/us-heat-waves on May 10th, 2021.
  28. Robine, J.M., Cheung, S.L.K., Le Roy, S., Van Oyen, H., Michel, J.P. and Herrmann, F.R. (2007, August 22).  Death toll exceeded 70,000 in Europe during the summer of 2003. Comptes Rendus Biologies, Vol. 331, Issue 2:171-178.  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631069107003770?via%3Dihub
  29. The World Bank. (2013, June 19). Warmer World Will Keep Millions of People Trapped in Poverty, Says New Report. Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/06/19/warmer-world-will-keep-millions-of-people-trapped-in-poverty-says-new-report on May 10th, 2021.
  30. Clean Jobs Midwest. Wisconsin Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://www.cleanjobsmidwest.com/more-jobs-data?f=wi on April 4th, 2021.
  31. Patz et. al.  Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming Our Health in Wisconsin. P. 6. https://ghi.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/168/2020/10/Medical-Alert-Climate-Change-is-Harming-Our-Health-in-Wisconsin.pdf.
  32. Retrieved from https://www.salary.com/research/salary/posting/solar-installer-salary/wi on March 16th, 2021.
  33. Retrieved from https://www.payscale.com/research/US/Job=Energy_Efficiency_Specialist/Salary on March 16th, 2021.
  34. Keene, A., Lick, A., Pigg, S. and Parkhurst, R. (2018). Assessment of Energy and Cost Savings for Homes Treated under Wisconsin’s Home Energy Plus Weatherization Program 2018. P.13. Retrieved from http://homeenergyplus.wi.gov/docview.asp?docid=28720&locid=25, on March 16th, 2021.
  35. Clean Wisconsin. (February 2021). Strategies for Climate Action in Wisconsin. P. 3. Retrieved from https://www.cleanwisconsin.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Final_CCTF_1.pdf.
  36. Patz et. al.  Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming Our Health in Wisconsin. P. 6. https://ghi.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/168/2020/10/Medical-Alert-Climate-Change-is-Harming-Our-Health-in-Wisconsin.pdf.
  37. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Extreme heat can impact our health in many ways. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/pubs/extreme-heat-final_508.pdf.  On April 14th, 2021.
  38. Witthun, O. (2018, October 11). Reduce crime and violence with trees in your neighborhood. Wisconsin DNR Forestry News. https://forestrynews.blogs.govdelivery.com/2018/10/11/reduce-crime-and-violence-with-trees-in-your-neighborhood/
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