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Disease Index

 Amebiasis

Amebiasis is caused by a parasite. Humans get amebiasis by eating food or drinking beverages contaminated with the amebiasis parasite. The disease can also be spread through contact with the stool (feces) of an infected person and through sexual contact. Symptoms of amebiasis include pain in the abdomen, upset stomach, stomach cramps, loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever, and chills. These symptoms usually occur 2-4 weeks after infection. Some infected people do not show symptoms of amebiasis but they can still spread the disease to others. To prevent the spread of amebiasis, make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after going to the bathroom and after touching raw meat. Use soap and water to wash any plates, counters, and silverware that have touched raw meat. Also, be sure to wash fruits and vegetables before cooking/eating. It is very important that you fully cook all meat before eating. There is no vaccine that prevents amebiasis.

In 2006, 3 cases of amebiasis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of amebiasis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Anthrax

Anthrax disease is caused by the anthrax bacterium. Humans get anthrax from working with sick farm animals or the products of sick farm animals. Anthrax can also be spread by eating undercooked meat from sick animals. Anthrax cannot spread from person to person. There are three types of anthrax: cutaneous, inhalation, and intestinal. Cutaneous anthrax, the most common type of anthrax, occurs when anthrax bacteria gets into a person's body through a cut on the skin. An itchy bump (that looks like a bug bite) with a black center will appear on the skin. Lymph nodes in the neck or other parts of the body might swell and be painful. Cutaneous anthrax can cause death. Inhalation anthrax occurs when a person breathes in particles (spores). These spores can come from a sick animal or from bioterrorism. The first symptoms of inhalation anthrax can include a cough and a fever. A few days later, a sick person may have a lot of trouble breathing and may go into shock. Inhalation anthrax often causes death. Intestinal anthrax occurs when a person eats the meat of an animal with anthrax. The first symptoms of intestinal anthrax are upset stomach, vomiting, loss of appetite, and fever. Later symptoms include pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, and vomiting blood. Intestinal anthrax can also cause death. There is a vaccine that prevents anthrax, but it can have side effects, and it is usually only given to certain military personnel and high-risk laboratory workers.

In 2006, no cases of anthrax were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of anthrax must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Anthrax http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/
Anthrax: What You Need To Know http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/needtoknow.asp
Anthrax Q & A: Vaccination http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/faq/vaccination.asp


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 Blastomycosis

 

Blastomycosis is caused by a fungus that is found in soil, especially soil found in wooded areas that are close to water. Blastomycosis is spread to humans when a person inhales dust that contains particles of the fungus. Blastomycosis cannot be spread from person to person or from animal to person. Symptoms of blastomycosis can include coughing, trouble breathing, chest pain, fever, tiredness, weight loss, joint and muscle pain/stiffness, rash, and skin lesions. There is no vaccine that protects humans against blastomycosis, but special anti-fungal medications can be used to treat it.

In 2006, 7 cases of blastomycosis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of blastomycosis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Blastomycosis http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/blastomycosis/
Blastomycosis http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000102.htm

 


 

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 Botulism

Botulism disease is caused by a toxin produced by botulinum bacteria. There are three different types of botulism: foodborne botulism, intestinal botulism, and wound botulism. Foodborne botulism is caused by eating contaminated food products, especially products in old or damaged cans, or improperly prepared home-canned goods. Symptoms of foodborne botulism may include tiredness, blurry or double vision, dizziness, weakness, dry mouth, trouble swallowing, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and pain/swelling of the abdomen. In intestinal botulism, symptoms can include tiredness, lack of appetite, unusual cry, muscle weakness (especially in the muscles that control the head), and constipation. Wound botulism results when the bacteria enter an open cut on a person's body. The symptoms of wound botulism are similar to those of foodborne botulism. All three types of botulism can cause muscle paralysis and can lead to death. To prevent foodborne botulism, be sure to cook food thoroughly. In particular, make sure to follow proper preservation/hygiene techniques with home-canned food items. It is best to boil home-canned food items for at least 10 minutes before eating. To prevent intestinal botulism, do not feed honey to infants less than one year of age. There is no vaccine that protects against botulism.

In 2006, no cases of botulism were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of botulism must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Botulism http://www.cdc.gov/Botulism/
Kids Health: Infant Botulism http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/botulism.html

 


 

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 Brucellosis

Brucellosis disease is caused by Brucella bacteria. The disease is spread when a person comes into contact with infected animals or the products of infected animals. A person can become infected by brucellosis by eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated beverages (especially milk). A person can also become infected by inhaling the bacteria. Additionally, a person can be infected with brucellosis when bacteria enter an open wound. Symptoms of brucellosis may include fever, headache, weakness, chills, sweating, and back pain. Other symptoms may include weight loss and depression. To prevent the spread of brucellosis, do not drink unpasteurized milk or eat other unpasteurized dairy products (e.g. cheese). Hunters should wear rubber gloves when dealing with animal carcasses. There is no vaccine that protects against brucellosis, but certain antibiotics can be used to treat it.

In 2006, no cases of brucellosis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of brucellosis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Brucellosis http://www.cdc.gov/brucellosis/
Brucellosis http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/brucellosis/

 


 

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 Campylobacteriosis

Campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter bacteria. The disease is spread when people touch or eat raw meat, especially chicken and turkey meat. The disease is also spread by drinking unpasteurized milk and contaminated water. Infected pets can also spread campylobacteriosis to humans. Symptoms of campylobacteriosis usually appear 2-5 days after exposure. Symptoms may include fever, stomach cramps, pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, upset stomach, and vomiting. Sick people usually recover from campylobacteriosis around 1 week after their symptoms began, but some symptoms can persist for months. To prevent the spread of campylobacteriosis, make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after touching raw meat, especially chicken/turkey meat, and after touching animals (especially puppies and kittens). Also use soap and water to wash any cutting boards, counters, plates, and silverware that touch raw meat. Make sure to fully cook chicken, turkey, and other meat before eating. Do not drink unpasteurized milk. There is no vaccine that protects against campylobacteriosis, but certain antibiotics can be used to treat it.

In 2006, 97 cases of campylobacteriosis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of campylobacteriosis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Campylobacteriosis http://www.nyhealth.gov/nysdoh/communicable_diseases/en/camplyo.htm
Kids Health: Campylobacter Infections http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/campylobacter.html
Campylobacter Infections http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/campylobacter/


 

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 Cat Scratch Disease

Cat scratch disease is caused by Bartonella bacteria from infected cats. Cats become infected by fleas that carry the bacteria. Humans can become infected with cat scratch disease by being licked, scratched, or bitten by an infected kitten or cat. The part of the body that was scratched or bitten will most likely develop a bump that looks like a bug bite. After several weeks, lymph nodes near the bump may become swollen and painful. Other symptoms may include fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, sore throat, weakness, headache, and rash. Cat scratch disease cannot be spread from person to person. To prevent cat scratch disease, make sure to wash hands with warm water and soap after playing with cats or kittens. Also, avoid playing with unfamiliar cats. There is no vaccine that protects against cat scratch disease, but certain antibiotics can be used to treat it.

In 2006, 1 case of cat scratch disease was reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of cat scratch disease must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Cat Scratch Disease (Bartonella henselae Infection) http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/diseases/catscratch.htm
Kids Health: Cat Scratch Disease http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/cat_scratch.html



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 Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by Chlamydia bacteria. The disease can be spread through sexual contact (vaginal, anal, or oral) and from an infected pregnant woman to her baby. Symptoms for women may include pain while urinating, abdominal pain, nausea, pain during sex, unusual vaginal discharge, back pain, nausea, fever, and spotting. Infected pregnant women can deliver premature babies or babies with chlamydial infections of the eyes and/or respiratory tract. Without treatment, many infected women will get pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause pain and infertility. For men, symptoms may include pain while urinating and unusual discharge from the penis. Infected individuals who practice anal sex may experience pain in the rectum, rectal bleeding, or unusual discharge. Many infected people show no symptoms of chlamydia but they can still spread the disease to others. To prevent chlamydia, always use condoms and/or other protective measures (e.g. dental dams) during sexual activity. There is no vaccine that prevents chlamydia but there are antibiotics that can be given to cure the disease.

In 2006, 9,209 cases of chlamydia were reported in Milwaukee County.

The Milwaukee Health Department provides free and confidential STD counseling, testing, and treatment at its Keenan Central Health Clinic. For more information about this clinic, please visit the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3178.

Confirmed or suspected cases of chlamydia must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Chlamydia: CDC Fact Sheet http://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/STDFact-Chlamydia.htm
Kids Health: Chlaymydial Infections http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/chlamydia.html
Milwaukee Health Department: STD/HIV/AIDS http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?DocID=444


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 Cryptosporidiosis

 

Cryptosporidiosis (Crypto) is a serious disease caused by Cryptosporidium parasites. The disease can be spread through the stool/feces of sick people and animals. A person can also become infected by eating undercooked contaminated food or drinking contaminated water, for example in swimming pools, hot tubs, lakes, and rivers. Symptoms of crypto can include diarrhea, stomach cramps, upset stomach, vomiting, loss of weight, dehydration, and fever. Symptoms do not usually last for more than a month. Some infected people might not feel sick but they can still spread crypto to other people. To prevent crypto, make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after using the bathroom. Also make sure to thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables before eating/cooking. There is no vaccine that protects against cryptosporidiosis. People with very weak immune systems should consider drinking only boiled or purified water.

In 2006, 21 cases of cryptosporidiosis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of cryptosporidiosis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Cryptosporidiosis http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/
Fact Sheet: Cryptosporidium Infection http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/cryptosporidiosis/factsht_cryptosporidiosis.htm

 


 

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 Diphtheria

Diphtheria disease is caused by diphtheria bacteria and can be spread from person to person. Diphtheria is passed through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Sharing food/drink with an infected person can also spread diphtheria. Diphtheria starts with a sore throat and fever. The glands of the neck may swell and be painful and a fuzzy gray/black coating may develop in the nose and/or throat. Later symptoms of diphtheria can include trouble breathing/swallowing, slurred speech, and double vision. Diphtheria can cause serious health problems, hospitalization, or even death. A person can have diphtheria more than once in their lifetime if they are not vaccinated.

There is a safe and effective vaccine (DTaP) that prevents diphtheria. The diphtheria vaccination is required for school/childcare attendance in Wisconsin. Children should receive five doses of the diphtheria vaccine (at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 months and then 4-6 years). Adults should receive a booster dose of the diphtheria vaccine (which is combined with a tetanus booster) every ten years.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free DTaP vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

In 2006, no cases of diphtheria were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of diphtheria must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Diphtheria http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/diptheria_t.htm
Kids Health Diphtheria http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/diphtheria.html
Vaccines: What You Need To Know. Diphtheria, Tetanus, & Pertussis http://www.cdc.gov/niP/publications/VIS/vis-dtp.pdf
Recommended Child Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule-color-print.pdf; Spanish Version http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule_sp.pdf
Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/adult-schedule.pdf;  


 

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 E. coli 0157:H7

E. coli O157:H7 is caused by certain E. coli bacteria. E. coli O157:H7 is spread through contaminated food and drink. Undercooked meat (especially beef), unpasteurized milk, and unwashed fruits and vegetables can contain E. coli O157:H7. E. coli O157:H7 can also be spread through the stool/feces of an infected person or animal. Symptoms of E. coli O157:H7 include diarrhea, sometimes bloody diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. These symptoms will usually go away in 5-10 days. Some infected people do not have any symptoms of E. coli O157:H7 but can still spread the disease to others. It is important that you fully cook all meat before eating. Make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after touching raw meat. You should also wash any plates, counters, and silverware that have touched raw meat. Also, be sure to wash fruits and vegetables before cooking/eating. Do not drink or serve unpasteurized milk. There is no vaccine to protect against E. coli O157:H7. There are antibiotics that can be given to treat people with E. coli O157:H7.

In 2006, 27 cases of E. coli O157:H7 were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of E. coli O257:H7 must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Escherichia coli O157:H7 http://www.medicinenet.com/e_coli__0157h7/article.htm
Escherichia coli O157:H7 http://www.medicinenet.com/e_coli__0157h7/article.htm 
Current Cargill Recall: Details about Lot Numbers and pictures of recalled products: www.fsis.usda.gov


 

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 Ehrlichiosis

Ehrlichiosis disease is caused by Ehrlichia bacteria. The disease is spread to humans through the bite of a tick (especially deer ticks and lone star ticks). Symptoms usually appear within 16 days after the tick bite occurred. These symptoms may include high fever, headache, tiredness, muscle aches, and a rash. To prevent ehrlichiosis, wear protective clothing (long sleeves, etc.) and use bug spray when outdoors. After being outdoors, check your body for ticks. If you find a tick on your body, remove it by using tweezers. There is no vaccine that protects against ehrlichiosis but there are antibiotics that can be given to treat the disease.

Confirmed or suspected cases of ehrlichiosis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Ehrlichiosis http://www.cdc.gov/ehrlichiosis/
Human Ehrlichiosis in the United States: Questions and Answers http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/ehrlichia/Q&A/Q&A.htm

 



 

 

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 Foodborne Illness

Foodborne illnesses are spread through contaminated food products or beverages. Food can become contaminated in many ways. One common way for food to become contaminated occurs when a food handler with an infectious disease does not wash their hands after using the restroom and accidentally gets their fecal matter (stool) on the food that they serve. Foodborne illnesses are also commonly spread from under/uncooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and unpasteurized milk. Foodborne illnesses also occur when food had been stored at an improper temperature (e.g. Not refrigerated properly), or when on contaminated food comes in contact with other food during preparation. Common symptoms of foodborne illnesses include diarrhea, upset stomach, and vomiting.

According to the CDC (see link below), you should go to your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms after eating/drinking questionable food/beverage:
High fever (temperature over 101.5 degrees F, measured orally)
Blood in the stools
Prolonged vomiting that prevents keeping liquids down (which can lead to
dehydration)
Signs of dehydration, including a decrease in urination, a dry mouth and throat,
and feeling dizzy when standing up
Diarrheal illness that lasts more than three days

To prevent foodborne illnesses, make sure to wash hands with warm water and soap after going to the bathroom and after touching raw meat. You should also wash any plates, counters, and silverware that have touched raw meat. It is important that you fully cook all meat and thoroughly wash fruits and vegetables before eating. Do not drink or serve unpasteurized milk. Also see WHO's "Five Keys to Safer Food": http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/consumer/en/5keys_en.pdf; (Spanish) http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/consumer/en/5keys_en.pdf;

To learn more about common foodborne illnesses, see entries for Botulism, Campylobacteriosis, Cryptosporidiosis, E. coli O157:H7, Giardiasis, Hepatitis A, Listeriosis, Norovirus, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, and Yersiniosis.

Resources:
Foodborne Illness, General Information http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/facts.html
Foodborne Illness: Prevention Strategies http://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheets/HGIC3620.htm
Foodborne Illness: What Consumers Need To Know
Food Safety Education: Cook It Safely! http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/index.html
Food Safety for Moms-to- be http://www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healtheducators/ucm081785.htm

Gateway to Government Food Safety Information http://www.foodsafety.gov/
The Bad Bug Book http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodborneIllnessContaminants/CausesOfIllnessBadBugBook/
Food Handling and Sanitation http://www.nps.gov/cany/river/sanitation.htm
Food Safety: Inspections and Licensing http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=8691 


 

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 Giardiasis

 

Giardiasis is caused by the giardia parasite. Giardiasis can be spread through the stool/feces of an infected person. The disease can also be spread when a person drinks or swims in contaminated water from a pool, hot tub, lake, or river. Eating contaminated undercooked food can also spread giardiasis. Symptoms of giardiasis usually appear 1-2 weeks after exposure. Symptoms may include upset stomach, tiredness, bloating, diarrhea, pale stool/feces, gas, and stomach cramps. Infected people usually recover 2-6 weeks after symptoms start. To prevent the spread of giardiasis, make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after going to the bathroom and after touching raw meat. It is important that you fully cook all meat before eating. Use soap and water to wash any plates, counters, and silverware that have touched raw meat. Also, be sure to wash fruits and vegetables before cooking/eating. Do not drink or serve unpasteurized milk. There is no vaccine that protects against giardiasis.

In 2006, 88 cases of giardiasis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of giardiasis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].


Resources:
Giardia Fact Sheet http://www.ct.gov/dph/cwp/view.asp?a=3136&q=388312
Fact Sheet: Giardiasis http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/giardiasis /factsht_giardia.htm

 


 

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 Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by bacteria. The disease can be spread through sexual contact (vaginal, anal, or oral) and from an infected pregnant woman to her baby. Symptoms for women may include pain while urinating, increased vaginal discharge, and spotting. Babies with gonorrhea may be blind or have blood and/or joint infections. Without treatment, many infected women will get pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause pain and infertility. For men, symptoms of gonorrhea may include pain while urinating, unusual (white, yellow, or green) discharge from the penis, and painful swollen testicles. Without treatment, men can have pain in the testicles and become infertile. Infected individuals who practice anal sex may experience unusual discharge, soreness, itching, bleeding, or pain during bowel movements. Some infected people show no symptoms of gonorrhea but they can still spread the disease to others. To prevent gonorrhea, always use condoms and/or other protective measures (e.g. dental dams) during sexual activity. There is no vaccine that prevents gonorrhea but there are antibiotics that can be given to cure the disease.

In 2006, 4,526 cases of gonorrhea were reported in Milwaukee County.

The Milwaukee Health Department provides free and confidential STD counseling, testing, and treatment at its Keenan Central Health Clinic. For more information about this clinic, please visit the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3178

Confirmed or suspected cases of gonorrhea must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Gonorrhea: CDC Fact Sheet http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm
Kids Health: Gonococcal Infections http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/gonococcal.html
Milwaukee Health Department: STD/HIV/AIDS http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?DocID=444


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 Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib)

Hib disease is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. Hib can be spread when a sick person coughs or sneezes. Many infected people do not have any symptoms of Hib but they can still spread Hib to others. Hib can cause very serious illnesses including bacterial meningitis, an infection in the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms of bacterial meningitis can include fever, vomiting, stiff neck, and weakness. Hib can also lead to infections in the blood, joints, bones, and heart. In severe cases, Hib can cause swelling in the throat, pneumonia, and even death.

There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents Hib. Children should receive three doses of the Hib vaccine (2, 4, and 12-15 months).

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free Hib vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

In 2006, 12 cases of Haemophilus Influenzae were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of Hib must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Haemophilus Influenzae Type b http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/pink/hib.pdf
Haemophilus Influenzae Type b http://www.dhpe.org/infect/hib.html
Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine: What You Need To Know http://www.cdc.gov/niP/publications/VIS/vis-hib.pdf4
Recommended Child Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule-color-print.pdf; Spanish Version http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule_sp.pdf


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 Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A disease is caused by the Hepatitis A virus. This virus is spread from one person to another. Hepatitis A can be spread through the stool/feces of an infected person. Eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water can also cause hepatitis A. Hepatitis A can be spread by injecting drugs or having sex with an infected person. The virus can survive outside of the body for a long period of time. Symptoms of hepatitis A can start 2-6 weeks after exposure. Symptoms may include nausea, diarrhea, and fever. Other symptoms can include fatigue, pain in the abdomen, jaundice (yellow eyes or skin), and a loss of appetite. Hepatitis A can also cause dark urine and light stools. Hepatitis A is usually more serious in adults than in children. Some infected people may experience no symptoms. Once a person has been infected with hepatitis A, they cannot be infected again. To protect against hepatitis A, make sure to wash your hands with soap and water after you use the bathroom. Also be sure to wash your hands before preparing and before eating food.

There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents Hepatitis A. Children and unvaccinated adults should receive 2 doses of the Hepatitis A vaccine, at least 6 months apart.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free Hepatitis A vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

In 2006, 13 cases of Hepatitis A were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of hepatitis A must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Hepatitis A Fact Sheet http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/a/fact.htm
Kids Health: Hepatitis http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/hepatitis.html
Hepatitis A Vaccine: What You Need To Know http://www.cdc.gov/niP/publications/VIS/vis-hep-a.pdf
Recommended Child Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule-color-print.pdf; Spanish Version http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule_sp.pdf
Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/adult-schedule.pdf; Spanish version: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/adult-schedule-sp.pdf


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 Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B disease is caused by the Hepatitis B virus. This virus can be spread from one person to another. Hepatitis B can be spread through unprotected sexual contact, by sharing needles with an infected person, or by getting a tattoo using unsterilized needles. The disease can also be passed from a pregnant woman to her baby during delivery. Symptoms include upset stomach, abdominal pain, yellow skin/eyes (jaundice), loss of appetite, darkened urine, tiredness, and light colored stools. The Hepatitis B virus can also cause liver damage including liver scarring (cirrhosis), cancer, and failure. Hepatitis B can lead to death. Some infected people may have no symptoms but they can still spread the disease to others.

There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents Hepatitis B before infection. Children should receive three doses of Hepatitis B vaccine (at birth, 1-2 months, and 6-18 months). Unvaccinated adults should also receive three doses of the Hepatitis B vaccine (2nd dose should be 1-2 months after the 1st dose and the 3rd dose should be 2-3 months after the 2nd dose).

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free Hepatitis B vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

In 2006, 33 cases of acute Hepatitis B were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of hepatitis B must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Hepatitis B: Frequently Asked Questions http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/faqb.htm
Kids Health: Hepatitis http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/hepatitis.html
Hepatitis B Vaccine: What You Need To Know http://www.cdc.gov/niP/publications/VIS/vis-hep-b.pdf
Recommended Child Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule-color-print.pdf; Spanish Version http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule_sp.pdf
Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/adult-schedule.pdf; Spanish version: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/adult-schedule-sp.pdf


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 Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C disease is caused by the Hepatitis C virus. This virus can be spread from one person to another. Hepatitis C can be spread by sharing needles with an infected person, by getting a tattoo using unsterilized needles, and occasionally by engaging in unprotected sexual contact with an infected person. The disease can also be passed from a pregnant woman to her baby during delivery. Symptoms may include yellow skin/eyes (jaundice), tiredness, upset stomach, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, light colored stools, darkened urine, itching, and a low fever. Some infected people may have no symptoms but they can still spread the disease to others. Chronic Hepatitis C can lead to infection, scarring (cirrhosis), and cancer of the liver. Hepatitis C can cause death. There is no vaccine that protects against Hepatitis C but there are medications that can be given to help treat the disease.

In 2006, 541 confirmed cases of chronic Hepatitis C were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of hepatitis C must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].


Resources:
Frequently Asked Questions About Hepatitis C http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/c/faq.htm
Kids Health: Hepatitis http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/hepatitis.html
Hepatitis C http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000284.htm#Symptoms



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 Herpes, genital

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by herpes viruses and can be spread from one person to another. There are two different types of herpes: HSV-1 (type 1) and HSV-2 (type 2). Either type can cause cold sores on the mouth or genital herpes infections. The virus is spread through sexual contact with an infected person, even if that person does not have any visible sores. The virus can also be spread from an infected pregnant woman to her baby during delivery. Symptoms of genital herpes include outbreaks of open blisters in the genital region. The initial outbreak is usually the most severe. Later outbreaks can occur frequently or rarely, depending on the person. The virus is most easily spread during an outbreak, but can be spread when no outbreak is occurring. Some infected people do not show any symptoms but they can still spread the disease to others. There is no vaccine that protects against herpes. There are medications that can be given to help treat the disease. There is currently no cure for genital herpes.

In 2006, 929 cases of genital herpes were reported in Milwaukee County.

The Milwaukee Health Department provides free and confidential STD counseling, testing, and treatment at its Keenan Central Health Clinic. For more information about this clinic, please visit the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3178

Confirmed or suspected cases of initial outbreaks of genital herpes must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Genital Herpes: CDC Fact Sheet http://www.cdc.gov/std/Herpes/STDFact-Herpes.htm
Kids Health: Herpes http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/herpes.html
Milwaukee Health Department: STD/HIV/AIDS http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?DocID=444



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 HIV/AIDS

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is caused by the HIV virus and can be spread from person to person. HIV can be spread through sexual intercourse with an infected person or by sharing needles with an infected person. HIV/AIDS can also be spread from an infected mother to her baby. HIV cannot be spread by casual contact with an infected person (e.g. handshakes, hugs). After awhile, often months or years, a HIV-infected person becomes more seriously ill and then is diagnosed with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Symptoms of HIV/AIDS often appear months-years after infection. These symptoms may include tiredness, weight loss, swollen/painful lymph nodes, and diarrhea. Because HIV/AIDS attacks the immune system, individuals with HIV/AIDS tend to get sick very easily with infections and cancers that are extremely rare in a healthy population. As there is currently no cure or vaccine for HIV/AIDS, the disease is usually fatal. However, there are medications that can be given to help treat HIV/AIDS, and properly treated people can live with HIV for many years.

The Milwaukee Health Department provides free and confidential HIV/AIDS counseling and testing at its Keenan Central Health Clinic. For more information about this clinic, please visit the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3178

New confirmed or suspected cases of HIV/AIDS must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
AIDS Fact Sheet http://edcp.org/factsheets/aids.html
Kids Health: HIV and AIDS http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/hiv.html
Milwaukee Health Department: STD/HIV/AIDS http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?DocID=444

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 Human Papiloma virus (HPV)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an extremely common sexually transmitted disease that is caused by the HPV virus and can be spread from one person to another. Studies show that over half of all sexually-active Americans have been infected with at least on type of HPV. The virus is spread through genital contact with an infected person. Wearing a condom is not enough to protect yourself from HPV. Symptoms of HPV include warts that may be shaped like cauliflower on the cervix, vagina, penis, scrotum, groin, thigh, and/or anus. Some infected people do not show any symptoms, but they can still spread the disease to others. HPV can lead to cervical cancer and other cancers. There is no cure to HPV, but the disease sometimes goes away on its own. There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents HPV.
The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free HPV vaccinations for adolescent females at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

The Milwaukee Health Department provides free and confidential STD counseling, testing, and treatment at its Keenan Central Health Clinic. For more information about this clinic, please visit the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3178

HPV disease is not required to be reported to local health department authorities.

Resources:
Genital HPV Infection-CDC Fact Sheet http://www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV.htm
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/
HPV Vaccine Questions and Answers http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-Vaccine.htm
Milwaukee Health Department: STD/HIV/AIDS http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?DocID=444


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 Influenza, Avian (Bird Flu)

There are many different types (strains) of avian influenza, all of which are caused by a virus. Avian influenza can be spread to healthy birds through the feces/saliva of infected birds. H5N1 is the strain of avian influenza that we know as "bird flu." H5N1 is spread to humans through direct contact with infected birds and can be spread from person to person only with great difficulty. Influenza viruses mutate often, however, and scientists are worried that H5N1 may change into a virus that can be easily spread from person to person. Symptoms of avian influenza in humans may include flu-like symptoms (fever, sore throat, body aches, cough), pneumonia, trouble breathing, and eye infections. Avian influenza in humans can cause death. There have not been any reported cases of avian influenza in the United States. As long as poultry is cooked thoroughly, it is safe to eat chicken, turkey, etc. There is currently no vaccine that protects against avian influenza. Getting a "flu shot" protects against the seasonal flu but offers only little protection against avian influenza.

In 2006, no cases of avian influenza were reported in Milwaukee County.

Resources:
Key Facts about Avian Influenza http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/facts.htm
Kids Health: Bird Flu http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/cold_flu_review/avian_flu.html
Questions and Answers about Avian Influenza http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/qa.htm
MHD Avian Influenza and Pandemic Flu http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=14068



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 Influenza, Seasonal

Influenza ("the flu") is caused by a virus and can be spread form person to person. Influenza is referred to as "seasonal" because most cases occur at a particular time during the year (December-March). Seasonal influenza is not the same as avian influenza ("bird flu"). Seasonal influenza is spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or by rubbing the nose or eyes with unwashed hands. Symptoms of influenza can include fever, headache, body aches, dizziness, loss of appetite, chills, tiredness, upset stomach, vomiting, diarrhea, ear infection, runny nose, and cough. It is important to note that there are many different types (strains) of influenza. Every year, the flu vaccine is prepared so that it protects against those strains that are most likely to appear during the flu season. Sometimes, however, people get sick with strains of the flu that the flu vaccine is not prepared for. Therefore, some people who have had a flu vaccine will still get influenza. Because the virus mutates so often, the flu vaccine changes every year, so it is important to get revaccinated annually. There are two different types of flu vaccine: inactivated flu vaccine and intranasal flu vaccine. The inactivated flu vaccine (more commonly known as the "flu shot") is injected, usually into the arm, and contains flu virus that has been killed. Because the flu virus is not alive, a person cannot get influenza from the inactivated flu vaccine. The intranasal vaccine is given as a nasal spray and contains live attenuated virus. Live attenuated viruses are specially created so that they are incapable of causing disease. Therefore, a person cannot get influenza from the intranasal flu vaccine.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides influenza vaccinations for a small fee at several clinic locations, usually between October and February. Getting an annual influenza vaccine sooner in the season is generally better. Influenza vaccines are free for individuals covered under Medicare Part B (make sure to bring your Medicare card to the clinic). For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

Resources:
What Everyone Should Know About Flu and the Flu Vaccine http://www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm
Kids Health: Influenza http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/cold_flu_review/flu.html
Seasonal Influenza (Flu) http://dhfs.wisconsin.gov/communicable/influenza/index.htm
Symptoms (Spanish) http://www.cdc.gov/flu/espanol/symptoms.htm?s_cid=ccu013006r_SeasonalFl
Preventing Flu at Work http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/displayFile.asp?docid=739&filename=/User/mbrues/WorkSettingFinal.pdf
Preventing Flu at Daycare http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/displayFile.asp?docid=739&filename=/User/mbrues/DayCareSettingFinal.pdf
Preventing Flu at School http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/displayFile.asp?docid=739&filename=/User/mbrues/SchoolFinal.pdf
Preventing Flu at Home http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/displayFile.asp?docid=739&filename=/User/mbrues/HomeFinal.pdf
Handwashing and cough hygiene http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/displayFile.asp?docid=739&filename=/User/mbrues/cough_cold2.pdf
(Spanish) http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/displayFile.asp?docid=739&filename=/User/mbrues/cough_cold_span.pdf
(Hmong) http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/displayFile.asp?docid=739&filename=/User/mbrues/cough_cold_hmong.pdf
Inactivated Flu Vaccine 2007-2008: What You Need To Know http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-flu.pdf
Live, Intranasal Influenza Vaccine 2007-2008: What You Need To Know http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-flulive.pdf


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 Kawasaki Syndrome

Kawasaki syndrome is a disease that usually affects young children (under 5 years). The route of transmission (how the disease is spread) is unknown. Symptoms may include red eyes and mouth, high fever, sore throat, mood change, and a rash. Swelling may occur in the hands, feet, tongue, and lymph nodes. The tongue may be white and spotted with red bumps. Later symptoms may include vomiting, diarrhea, upset stomach, abdominal pain, and joint pain.  Without treatment, Kawasaki syndrome can lead to serious heart problems. There is no vaccine that protects against Kawasaki syndrome but there are medications that can be given to treat the disease.

In 2006, 6 cases of Kawasaki Syndrome were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of Kawasaki syndrome must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Legionellosis

Legionellosis is caused by legionella bacteria that grows in the warm water of hot tubs, large air conditioning systems (like in an office building or hotel), and other water storage areas. Legionellosis is spread when a person breathes in mist or vapor that contains Legionella bacteria. A person that is sick with Legionellosis cannot spread the disease to other people. There are two types of Legionellosis: Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease may include high fever, chills, tiredness, cough, headaches, diarrhea, muscle aches, and pneumonia. These symptoms will usually start 2-14 days after exposure. Legionnaire's disease may cause death. Pontiac fever shares many of the same symptoms with Legionnaire's disease. However, Pontiac fever does not cause pneumonia or death. People sick with Pontiac fever will usually get better within 2-5 days without needing any medication. There is no vaccine that protects against Legionellosis but there are antibiotics that can be given to cure the disease.

In 2006, 9 cases of Legionellosis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of legionellosis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Listeriosis (Listeria)

Listeriosis is caused by listeria bacteria. Listeriosis can be spread by eating food that is contaminated by the bacteria. Listeriosis cannot be spread from person to person but can be spread from a pregnant woman to her unborn child. Symptoms of listeriosis can include fever, upset stomach, diarrhea, and muscle aches. Listeriosis in a pregnant woman may cause the unborn baby to be born early or to die. To prevent listeriosis, make sure to fully cook all meat and wash all fruits and vegetables before eating. Be sure to wash your hands in warm water with soap after touching raw meat. Use soap and water to wash any counters or utensils that touch raw meat. Do not drink unpasteurized milk. There is no vaccine that protects against listeriosis.

In 2006, 3 cases of listeriosis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of listeriosis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is caused by borrelia bacteria. The disease is spread by black-legged and deer ticks to humans. Lyme disease cannot be spread from person to person. Symptoms of Lyme disease will usually appear within one month of exposure. These symptoms may include a red rash that looks like a bull's eye (erythema migrans), swollen lymph nodes, headache, muscle and joint pain, chills, fever, and tiredness. Later symptoms may include sensitivity to light, paralysis of the face, viral meningitis, heart problems, and numb/tingly hands and feet. Without treatment, Lyme disease can lead to arthritis and a decrease in brain function. There is no vaccine that protects against Lyme disease but there are medications that can be given to treat the disease.

In 2006, 12 cases of lyme disease were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of lyme disease must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Measles

Measles disease is caused by the measles virus. The virus can travel easily through the air. Being in the same building as somebody with measles is enough to become infected. About 10-12 days after exposure, fever, cough, runny nose, and watery red eyes may appear. Around the same time, red spots with white centers may show up inside the mouth. Several weeks after the start of the symptoms, a full-body rash will appear. This red/brown blotchy rash generally starts at the forehead and then spreads to the face, neck, body, and feet. The rash can last for 5-6 days. Sometimes, measles can cause diarrhea, ear infection, and/or pneumonia. In rare cases, measles can lead to seizures and even death. Measles is usually more serious in adults than in children. Having measles while you are pregnant raises the risk of a miscarriage.

There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents measles (MMR). The MMR vaccination is required for school/childcare attendance. Children should receive two doses of MMR (at 12-15 months and 4-6 years). Unvaccinated adults should also receive two doses of MMR.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free MMR vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. Click here for information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics .

Confirmed or suspected cases of measles must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:



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 Meningitis, bacterial

Bacterial meningitis is caused by certain bacteria and can be spread from one person to another. The disease can be spread through coughing, sneezing, or the mucus or saliva of an infected person. Symptoms may include fever, headache, upset stomach, vomiting, neck stiffness, tiredness, and sensitivity to light. Occasionally, a bruise-like rash will appear on the body of an infected person. Bacterial meningitis can lead to serious medical conditions including seizures, brain damage, and death. There are vaccines that protect against some types of bacterial meningitis (Hib, meningococcal, and pneumococcal vaccines). There are also antibiotics that can be given to help treat the disease.

In 2006, 19 cases of bacterial meningitis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of bacterial meningitis must be reported within 72 hours except for Hib and meningococcal disease, which should be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:

 


 

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 Meningitis, viral/aseptic

Viral meningitis is caused by certain viruses and can be spread from person to person. The disease can be spread through coughing, sneezing, or the stool/feces, saliva, or mucus of an infected person. Symptoms may include headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, tiredness, vomiting, upset stomach, fever, and confusion. Infants with viral meningitis may have symptoms including loss of appetite, irritability, and fever. Some people with viral meningitis may not have any symptoms but they can still spread the disease to others. To prevent viral meningitis, make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after going to the bathroom or changing diapers. There is no vaccine that prevents viral meningitis.


In 2006, 91 cases of viral meningitis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of viral meningitis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Mumps

Mumps Information for Everyone

Mumps disease is caused by the mumps virus. The virus can be spread from person to person through saliva, such as when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Mumps can also be spread by sharing food or drink with an infected person.

Signs of mumps may include fever, headache, and loss of appetite. One or more salivary glands (located in the cheeks, below and in front of the ears) may become swollen and tender. The right and left glands might not swell at the same time. The swelling may progressively get worse and more painful. Swallowing, talking, chewing, or drinking acidic beverages (such as orange juice) may make the pain worse.

Other symptoms may include headache, vomiting, upset stomach, tiredness, and a stiff neck. Mumps can cause viral meningitis, which can be fatal, especially among infants and the elderly. Sometimes when boys or men get mumps, one or both of their testicles will become swollen and inflamed which can occasionally cause them to become sterile.

A case of mumps will usually last for 2-3 weeks. Sometimes, a person can be infected with mumps without feeling sick at all. Even though an infected person does not feel ill, they can still pass mumps to other people.

There is a safe and effective vaccine (MMR) that prevents mumps. The MMR vaccination is required for school/childcare attendance. Children should receive two doses of MMR (at 12-15 months and 4-6 years). Unvaccinated adults should also receive two doses of MMR.In 2006, 165 cases of mumps were reported in Milwaukee County.

There was a large Mumps epidemic that occurred in the Midwestern United States during 2006. The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free MMR vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090

Confirmed or suspected cases of mumps must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax]. For information about the vaccine, how to prevent the disease, and what to do if you get mumps by clicking on the links below.

Mumps Fact Sheets:     

Other Links:

Guidance from MHD for Healthcare workers:

Guidance from State of Wisconsin:

Mumps Information for Colleges and Universities:

  • Joint statement from the American College Health Association (ACHA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)  click here for pdf
  • Letter (6/2/06) from ACHA  click here for pdf   

Mumps Information for Summer Camps:

  • "Mumps Alert for Camps" from the CDC (06/10)   click here for pdf            

Updates from Iowa:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):    


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 Meningococcal Disease

Meningococcal disease is a contagious disease that is caused by bacteria. Meningococcal disease is spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Meningococcal disease can lead to meningococcal (bacterial) meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection around the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms of bacterial meningitis include fever, headaches, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and vomiting. Bacterial meningitis can lead to deafness, seizures, strokes, and brain damage. Bacterial meningitis can also cause infections of the blood, joints, bones, and heart. Meningococcal disease can also cause severe complications such as gangrene (requiring amputation of fingers, toes, arms or legs), blood poisoning (septicemia), shock and death. Symptoms of severe meningococcal disease may include tiredness, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, cold hands/feet, muscle and joint aches, pain in the abdomen, fast breathing, and a bruise-like rash.

There is a safe and effective vaccine (MCV4) that prevents meningococcal disease. Children should get one dose of MCV4 at 11-12 years of age. Unvaccinated adults may also receive one dose of MCV4.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free MCV4 vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

In 2006, no cases of meningococcal disease were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of meningococcal disease must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Meningococcal Disease http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/meningococcal_g.htm
Meningococcal Meningitis http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs141/en/index.html
Meningococcal Vaccines: What You Need To Know http://www.cdc.gov/niP/publications/VIS/vis-mening.pdf
Recommended Child Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule-color-print.pdf; Spanish Version http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule_sp.pdf
Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/adult-schedule.pdf; Spanish version: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/adult-schedule-sp.pdf


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 Mycobacterial disease (Non-tuberculosis)

Non-tuberculosis mycobacterial disease (NTM) is caused by mycobacterial bacteria found in water and soil. NTM can only very rarely be spread from person to person. Symptoms of NTM may include cough, fever, night sweats, tiredness, and weight loss. There is no vaccine that protects against NTM but there are medications that can be given to help treat the disease.

In 2006, no cases of non-tuberculosis mycobacterial disease were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of mycobacterial disease (non-tuberculosis) must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria http://www.ntminfo.com/
Atypical mycobacteria http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/954973743.html

See also "Tuberculosis"


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 Norovirus

Norovirus diseases are caused by certain viruses that can be spread from person to person. Norovirus is also known as the "stomach flu" (although it has no relation to influenza, which is a respiratory illness). Norovirus is spread through the stool/feces and vomit of an infected person. Norovirus is also spread through contaminated food and beverage. The infection can quickly spread among large groups of people. Symptoms of norovirus may include upset stomach, headache, tiredness, diarrhea, fever, chills, vomiting, and stomach cramps. The disease usually lasts for only 1-2 days. To prevent norovirus, wash your hands with warm water and soap after using the bathroom. There is no vaccine that protects against norovirus and there are currently no medications that can be used to treat the disease.

Resources:
Norovirus Fact Sheet http://www.vdh.state.va.us/epi/norovirusf.pdf
Norovirus: Q & A http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/gastro/norovirus-qa.htm


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 Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

Whooping cough, also known as pertussis, is caused by Bordetella bacteria and can be spread from person to person. Whooping cough is usually spread when a sick person coughs or sneezes. Symptoms of whooping cough may include a runny nose, a low fever, and a mild cough. This cough usually starts about 7-10 days after infection. After 1-2 weeks, the cough usually gets worse. The cough often turns into spells that can last for over 1 minute. During a spell, a person with whooping cough might turn red or purple. At the end of a coughing spell, the sick person often makes a "whoop" sound and/or vomits. After a coughing spell is over, a person with whooping cough will often feel fine until the start of the next spell. Symptoms of whooping cough can last for weeks or even months.

There are two safe and effective vaccines (DTaP and Tdap) that prevent whooping cough. The DTaP vaccination is required for school/childcare attendance. Children should get five doses of DTaP (2, 4, 6, and 15-18 months and 4-6 years). Adolescents and adults should receive one dose of Tdap in place of their normal, every ten-year tetanus booster.

In 2006, 49 cases of pertussis were reported in Milwaukee County.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free DTaP vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

Confirmed or suspected cases of pertussis must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Pertussis http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/pink/pert.pdf
Kids Health: Whooping Cough (Pertussis) http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/whooping_cough.html
Vaccines: What You Need To Know. Diphtheria, Tetanus, & Pertussis: http://www.cdc.gov/niP/publications/VIS/vis-dtp.pdf
Recommended Child Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule-color-print.pdf; Spanish Version http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule_sp.pdf


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 Plague

Plague is a serious disease caused by certain Yersinia bacteria. Plague can be spread when an infected flea bites a human. Plague can also be spread when a sick person or animal coughs or sneezes. There are three different types of plague: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic. All three kinds of plague can cause death. Symptoms of bubonic plague usually appear 2-6 days after a person is bitten by an infected flea. Symptoms may include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, sore swollen lymph nodes, and chills. Usually skin rashes or bumps (called buboes) also occur. Symptoms of septicemic plague may include fever, tiredness, pain in the abdomen, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, and shock. Septicemic plague can also cause a sick person to bleed from their mouth, nose, and rectum. The person's fingers, toes, and nose may turn black. Symptoms of pneumonic plague usually appear 1-4 days after exposure. Symptoms may include fever, chills, trouble breathing, cough, headache, tiredness, and shock. There is no vaccine that protects against plague. There are antibiotics that can be given to help treat plague.

In 2006, no cases of plague were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of plague must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Plague http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/plague.html
Plague Fact Sheet http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/plague/ resources/plagueFactSheet.pdf



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 Poliomyelitis (Polio)

Poliomyelitis is caused by the Polio virus and can be spread from person to person. Polio is spread through the stool (feces) of an infected person. Eating food or drinking water contaminated by an infected person's stool (feces) can cause polio. Most of the time, an infected person will develop no symptoms of polio (asymptomatic polio). Sometimes, an infected person will develop symptoms of polio (symptomatic polio). Some people with symptomatic polio will develop fever, sore throat, muscle aches, sensitivity to light, neck stiffness, and other neurological symptoms. Many of these people recover from the disease, but some develop paralytic polio. Paralytic polio can cause an infected person to lose the use of their arms and legs, make breathing difficult, and can cause death. To protect against polio, make sure to wash your hands with soap and water after you use the bathroom. Also be sure to wash your hands before preparing and eating food.

There is a safe and effective vaccine (IPV) that prevents polio. The polio vaccination is required for school/childcare attendance. Children should receive 4 doses of IPV (2, 4, and 6-18 months and 4-6 years).

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free IPV vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

Polio is very rare in the United States. However, the disease is still common in other parts of the world, and polio usually comes to the United States by people who travel here from other countries. Thus, it is still very important to get vaccinated against polio.

Confirmed or suspected cases of polio must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Poliomyelitis http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/pink/polio.pdf
Kids Health: Polio http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/polio.html
Polio Vaccine: What You Need To Know http://www.cdc.gov/
Recommended Child Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule-color-print.pdf; Spanish Version http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule_sp.pdf

 



 

 

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 Rabies, Animal

Rabies, Pets and Bat-proofing Your Home

Protect your pet from rabies! Symptoms of animal rabies include behavior change, loss of appetite, increased aggression, seizures, increased growling/barking, confusion, trouble swallowing and paralysis. Even indoor pets need rabies vaccinations to protect them from rabies or lengthy quarantines (or even euthanasia or "putting down")! Since some bats carry rabies, and the bite is hard to see, sometimes a pet that has been around a bat is considered to have been exposed to rabies (for example, if a pet has been alone with a bat and no one has seen if the bat bit or scratched the pet). Public health will respond by recommending quarantine or sometimes euthanasia depending on the circumstance.

<If another animal bites your pet and that pet is not vaccinated, call a veterinarian immediately>

In the Milwaukee Area, Good Neighbors is available to help with wild animals in the home on a sliding-fee basis. They can be reached at 414-431-6202. The Humane Society can also provide some advice over the phone: 414-ANI-MALS.

Learn more about protecting your pet from diseases and emergencies, please click here.  

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 Rabies, Human

 

Rabies disease is caused by Rabies virus. The virus can be spread from animal to animal or from animal to human. Bats, skunks, raccoons, coyotes, dogs, and cats are the animals that most often spread rabies.

Human Rabies
The spread of rabies from person to person is extremely rare. Symptoms of rabies usually appear 2-12 weeks after exposure. These symptoms can include headache, tiredness, fever, and irritability. Also, an infected person might have pain or itching where they were bitten/scratched. Later symptoms can include hallucinations (seeing things that are not really there), paralysis (losing control of muscles), convulsions, and breathing problems. Without early treatment, rabies usually causes death. There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents rabies if given soon after an animal bite.

If you are bitten by a stray animal:
Wash the wound thoroughly with warm water and soap.
Put antibacterial ointment on the wound.
IMMEDIATELY go to your doctor or the emergency room.
Contact your local Animal Control office.

If you have had contact with a bat or there is a bat in your house, immediately contact your doctor and your local health department.

Confirmed or suspected cases of human rabies must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].


Resources:
Questions and Answers About Rabies http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rabies/Ques&Ans/q&a.htm
Kids Health: Rabies http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/rabies.html
Rabies Vaccine: What You Need To Knowhttp://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-rabies.pdf
Rabies Infection and Animals http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/diseases/rabies.htm
Rabies-symptoms http://www.animalhealthchannel.com/rabies/symptoms.shtml
Bats and Rabies: A Public Health Guide http://www.cdc.gov/rabies/exposure/animals/bats.html
MMWR: Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2011 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6006a1.htm?s_cid=rr6006a1_w

 



 

 

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 Ricin Toxin

Ricin is a poison (toxin) which can be spread through the air. A person can breathe in (inhale) ricin toxin or ingest it by eating contaminated food or by drinking contaminated water. Ricin toxin cannot be spread from person to person. When a person inhales ricin, symptoms can include fever, trouble breathing, coughing, upset stomach, and sweating. People who inhale ricin may also feel tightness in their chests. Inhaled ricin can cause death. If ricin toxin gets into a person's eye or on a person's skin the toxin can cause pain and redness. When a person ingests ricin, symptoms can include vomiting, bloody urine, and diarrhea. Other symptoms may include hallucinations (seeing/hearing things that aren't really there) and seizures. Ingested ricin can cause death. Ricin may be used in cases of bioterrorism. There is no vaccine that protects against ricin toxin.

Confirmed or suspected cases of ricin toxin must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Ricin http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/ricin/
Facts about Ricin http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/ricin/facts.asp


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 Rotavirus

Rotavirus disease is caused by rotavirus and can be spread from person to person. The disease is spread through the stool/feces of an infected person. Rotavirus is common and typically infects young children (under 5 years). Symptoms may include fever, upset stomach, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting, cough, and runny nose. Some infected people do not have any symptoms of rotavirus but they can still spread the disease to others. To prevent rotavirus, wash your hands in warm water and soap after using the bathroom and/or changing diapers. There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents rotavirus.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) plans to provide free rotavirus vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website:

http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

Resources:
Rotavirus http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/gastro/rotavirus.htm
Kids Health: Rotavirus http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/rotavirus.html
Rotavirus Vaccine: What You Need To Know http://www.cdc.gov/niP/publications/VIS/vis-rotavirus.pdf



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 Rubella (German Measles)

 

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a contagious disease that is caused by rubella virus. Rubella is spread through the air when a sick person coughs or sneezes. Sharing food/drink with a sick person can also spread rubella. In pregnant women, rubella can spread to the unborn child through the mother's blood. Rubella can cause an unborn baby to die or to have serious birth defects. Symptoms of rubella may include mild fever, swollen/tender lymph nodes (in the neck or behind the ears), swollen red eyes, and a rash that starts at the face and moves downward. This pink/red spotted rash lasts for about three days and may be itchy. Other symptoms can include headache, runny nose, joint pain/swelling, and loss of appetite. Lymph nodes in other parts of the body besides the face might swell as well. In severe cases, rubella can cause swelling of the brain. An infected person may not have any symptoms but they can still spread rubella to other people.

There is a safe and effective vaccine (MMR) that prevents rubella. The MMR vaccination is required for school/childcare attendance. Children should receive two doses of MMR (at 12-15 months and 4-6 years). Unvaccinated adults should also receive two doses of MMR.

In 2006, no cases of rubella were reported in Milwaukee County. However, cases of rubella regularly occur throughout the world, and are often spread from one country to another by ill travelers.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free MMR vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

Confirmed or suspected cases of rubella must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:
Medical References: Rubella https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/ContentPlayerCtrl/doPlayContent/21-s2.0-1014587/{"scope":"all","query":"rubella"}
Kids Health Rubella (German Measles) http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/skin/german_measles.html
Vaccines: What You Need To Know. Measles, Mumps, & Rubella http://www.cdc.gov/niP/publications/VIS/vis-mmr.pdf
Recommended Child Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule-color-print.pdf; Spanish Version http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/child-schedule_sp.pdf
Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/adult-schedule.pdf; Spanish version: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/recs/adult-schedule-sp.pdf

 


 

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 Salmonellosis (Salmonella)
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 Shigellosis (Shigella)

Outbreak Information

General Information

Shigellosis is caused by shigella bacteria and can be spread through the stool (feces) of an infected person. The disease can also be spread by drinking contaminated water in pools, hot tubs, lakes, and rivers. It can also be spread when a person eats contaminated foods or drinks contaminated water.Exposure to even a small amount of the bacteria can cause shigellosis.

Symptoms of shigellosis usually appear 1-2 days after exposure. Symptoms may include fever, stomach cramps, vomiting, upset stomach, and diarrhea that may or may not be bloody. Symptoms usually disappear 5-7 days after they start. To prevent the spread of shigellosis, make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after going to the bathroom. It is important that you fully cook all meat before eating. Make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after touching raw meat. Use soap and water to wash any plates, counters, and silverware that have touched raw meat. Also, be sure to wash fruits and vegetables before cooking/eating. Do not drink or serve unpasteurized milk. There is no vaccine that protects against shigellosis.

In 2006, 101 cases of shigellosis were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of shigellosis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department at (414) 286-3624.

Resources:

Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services Fact Sheets:

Information for Healthcare Providers

The City of Milwaukee Health Department continues to receive numerous confirmed case reports of shigella infection within the City of Milwaukee particularly within daycare, school and other institutional settings. Furthermore, a significant number of laboratory isolates from the outbreak are multi-antibiotic resistant. Please continue to report all suspect cases to local public health agencies as well as test for organism presence. Call 414-286-3624 to report cases or if questions regarding current outbreak. Click here for more info .

 

 

 

 

 

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 Staphylococcus: Methycillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
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 Streptococcal Disease, Invasive Type A and Type B

Group A streptococcal disease is caused by certain strep bacteria that live in the throat and/or on the skin. The disease is spread through an infected person's mucus or when a person comes into contact with the wounds of an infected person. Group A streptococcal disease can cause a sore throat, fever, skin infection, and swollen lymph nodes. The disease can also lead to scarlet fever. Symptoms of scarlet fever include a sandpaper-like rash, "strawberry tongue," upset stomach, sore throat, vomiting, and fever. Group A streptococcal disease can also lead to more serious medical conditions including toxic shock syndrome. Group A streptococcal infections can lead to death. There is no vaccine that protects against Type A streptococcal disease but there are medications that can be given to treat the disease.

Group B streptococcal disease is caused by certain strep bacteria that typically live in the vagina, cervix, rectum, or intestine. The disease usually affects infants, immunocomprimised adults, pregnant women, and the elderly. Group B streptococcal disease can cause premature birth and can cause blood infections, pneumonia, and meningitis in infants. Symptoms for adults with Group B streptococcal disease may include pneumonia and blood, skin, and urinary tract infections. Most infected adults will have no symptoms of Group B streptococcal disease but they can still spread the disease to others. There is no vaccine that protects against Type B streptococcal disease.

In 2006, 26 cases of invasive Group A streptococcal disease and 65 cases of invasive Group B streptococcal disease were reported in Milwaukee County. The term "invasive" is used to distinguish serious infections from situations where the bacteria are living on the skin or in the body but not causing problems.

Confirmed or suspected cases of Group A or B streptococcal disease must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Streptococcus pneumonias invasive disease

Invasive streptococcus pneumoniae disease is caused by certain strep bacteria and can be spread from person to person. The disease is spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Symptoms may include fever, chills, cough (possibly with bloody mucus), and chest pain. Invasive streptococcus pneumoniae disease can cause serious conditions including pneumonia, meningitis and blood infections. Serious cases of streptococcus pneumoniae can lead to death.

There is a safe and effective vaccine (PCV) that prevents invasive pneumococcal disease. Children should receive four doses of PCV (2, 4, 6, 12-15 months). Unvaccinated adults over 65 should receive one dose of PCV.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free PCV vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For adults, MHD provides the PCV vaccination for $45. PCV vaccines are free for individuals covered under Medicare Part B (make sure to bring your Medicare card to the clinic). For information on the hours and locations of MHD clinics, please see the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3090.

In 2006, 114 cases of streptococcus pneumoniae invasive disease were reported in Milwaukee County. The term "invasive" is used to distinguish serious infections from situations where the bacteria are living on the skin or in the body but not causing problems.

Confirmed or suspected cases of streptococcus pneumoniae invasive disease must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Smallpox

Smallpox disease is caused by the smallpox virus. Smallpox can be spread when a healthy person is in close contact with a sick person. Smallpox can also be spread when a healthy person touches a sick person's sheets, clothing, or other personal belongings. After 7-17 days, symptoms of smallpox can include fever, headaches, muscle aches, and vomiting. Next, a rash of pus-filled blisters spreads across the entire body. The blisters will eventually scab and fall off. Smallpox frequently causes death.There is an effective vaccine that protects against smallpox.

Smallpox has been eradicated (eliminated) worldwide since 1980. Thus, there have been no new cases of smallpox in several decades. Since the vaccine can cause side effects, it is currently recommended only for certain military and laboratory personnel.

Confirmed or suspected cases of smallpox must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease that is caused by treponemal bacteria. The disease can be spread through sexual contact (vaginal, anal, or oral) and from an infected pregnant woman to her baby. There are four stages of syphilis infections: primary, secondary, tertiary, and latent. In the primary stage, symptoms can include a single or multiple sores on the penis, vagina, anus, mouth or other body parts. The syphilis sore (called a "chancre") usually appears within three weeks after infection. The sores are usually round and not usually painful. Without treatment, a syphilis infection will move into the secondary stage. During the secondary stage, symptoms can include rash, fever, headache, sore throat, hair loss, swollen/painful lymph nodes, tiredness, muscle aches, and weight loss. Symptoms of the tertiary stage may include paralysis, blindness, dementia, numbness, and lessened muscle control. Additionally, tertiary syphilis can cause serious internal damage to many of the body's organs (e.g. brain, heart). Between each stage (primary, secondary, and tertiary) a person usually has a "latent" stage where they have no symptoms but still have the disease, and can still spread the disease to others. Without treatment, syphilis can lead to death. There is no vaccine that prevents syphilis but there are antibiotics (e.g. penicillin) that can be given to cure the disease.

In 2006, 37 cases of primary and secondary syphilis were reported in Milwaukee County.

The Milwaukee Health Department provides free and confidential STD counseling, testing, and treatment at its Keenan Central Health Clinic. For more information about this clinic, please visit the following website: http://www.city.milwaukee.gov/display/router.asp?docid=3178

Confirmed or suspected cases of syphilis must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Tetanus

Tetanus (lockjaw) is caused by certain clostridium bacteria and cannot be spread from person to person. The bacteria that causes tetanus usually enters the body through a cut or wound. Symptoms may include headache, trouble swallowing, stiff neck, fever, and muscle spasms in the jaw. More serious cases of tetanus can cause spasms and seizures in other parts of the body. Tetanus can cause death, if not treated early.

There are three safe and effective vaccines (DTaP, Tdap, and Td) that prevent tetanus. The tetanus vaccination is required for school/childcare attendance. Children should receive five doses of the DTaP vaccine (at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 months and then 4-6 years). Adults should receive a booster dose of the Td vaccine every ten years. Adolescents and adults should receive one dose of Tdap in place of their regular Td booster.

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free tetanus vaccinations for children, adolescents, and adults at several clinic locations.

Confirmed or suspected cases of tetanus must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:



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 Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic shock syndrome is a rare disease that is caused by certain bacteria. It often occurs when tampons, contraceptive sponges, and contraceptive diaphragms are left in the vagina too long (more than 24 hours). Symptoms include high fever, vomiting, fainting, diarrhea, muscle aches, headache, sore throat, and a rash. Other symptoms may include red eyes, confusion, tiredness, weakness, extreme thirst, paleness, and fast breathing. Toxic shock syndrome can lead to death. There is no vaccine that protects against toxic shock syndrome, but antibiotics are available to treat it.

In 2006, 2 cases of toxic shock syndrome were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of toxic shock syndrome must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:



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 Tuberculosis (TB)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that is caused by certain mycobacterium bacteria. TB is spread when the TB bacteria get into the air. Coughing, sneezing, or even talking can spread TB. There are two stages of TB infection: latent and active. When a person is first infected, they will have "latent infection". With latent infection TB germs are in your body but they are not active. Usually, a person with latent infection will not have any symptoms and cannot spread the disease to other people. Without treatment, a latent TB infection may turn into an active infection. An active TB infection can be very serious. Symptoms of active TB include feeling sick or weak, fevers, and losing weight. Other symptoms include night sweats, coughing, and chest pain. Some people with TB will cough up blood. Without treatment, active TB can lead to hospitalization and even death. A person with an active infection can spread the disease to others. Close contact is needed for the spread of TB. A person with an active TB infection is most likely to spread TB to his/her co-workers, family, and friends. Treatment for latent TB usually requires a special TB antibiotic to be taken for 6-9 months. Treatment for active TB usually requires taking 2-4 special TB antibiotics for 9-12 months.

In 2006, 29 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Milwaukee County.

The Milwaukee Health Department provides free TB testing and treatment, by appointment only, at the Tuberculosis Control Clinic (TBCC).
For more information about this clinic, please visit the following website:

Confirmed or suspected cases of tuberculosis must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Tularemia

Tularemia is caused by Francisella bacteria and can be spread when a person is bitten by an infected tick or deerfly. Working with dead animals (e.g. hunting) can also spread tularemia. Tularemia can also be spread when a person eats contaminated food or drinks contaminated water. Tularemia cannot be spread from person to person. Symptoms of tularemia usually appear 3-5 days after exposure. Symptoms may include fever, headache, chills, muscle/joint pain, cough, tiredness, and diarrhea. Some infected people develop ulcers on the skin, swollen/tender lymph nodes, and a sore throat. To prevent the spread of tularemia, make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after going to the bathroom. It is important that you fully cook all meat before eating. Make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after touching raw meat. Use soap and water to wash any plates, counters, and silverware that have touched raw meat. Also, be sure to wash fruits and vegetables before cooking/eating. Do not drink or serve unpasteurized milk. There is no vaccine that protects against tularemia.

In 2006, no cases of tularemia were reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of tularemia must be reported within 24 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].


Resources:


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 Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is caused by certain bacteria and can be spread from person to person. Eating food or drinking beverages that have been contaminated/handled by an infected person can spread the disease. Symptoms may include high fever, headache, loss of appetite, stomach pain, weakness, cough, and a red spotted rash. To prevent the spread of typhoid fever, make sure to wash your hands with warm water and soap after going to the bathroom. There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents typhoid fever, but it is usually recommended only for people traveling to other countries where the disease is more common.

In 2006, 2 cases of typhoid fever was reported in Milwaukee County.

Confirmed or suspected cases of typhoid fever must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Varicella (Chickenpox)

Varicella (Chickenpox) is caused by the chickenpox virus. This virus can be spread from person to person. Chickenpox is spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Touching the skin of a person that has chicken pox can also spread the disease. Symptoms include a rash of itchy red/brown blisters, fever, headache, and abdominal pain. These symptoms will usually clear up within 10 days. Chickenpox during pregnancy can lead to birth defects in the fetus. Serious cases of chickenpox can lead to medical problems including pneumonia, brain swelling, and even death.

There is a safe and effective vaccine that prevents chickenpox. Younger children should receive one dose of the varicella vaccine at 12-18 months. Unvaccinated adults and older children should receive two doses of the varicella vaccine (the 2nd dose should be given at least 1-2 months after the 1st dose).

The Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) provides free varicella vaccinations for children and adolescents at several clinic locations. For hours and locations, please click here.

In 2006, 119 cases of varicella were reported in Milwaukee County, although many more cases probably go unreported.

Confirmed or suspected cases of varicella must be reported within 72 hours. In Milwaukee County, cases should be reported to Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) SurvNet at (414) 286-3624 [phone] or (414) 286-0280 [fax].

Resources:


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 Waterborne Illness

Waterborne illnesses are spread through contaminated water.  Oceans, lakes, rivers, swimming pools, hot tubs, and drinking water can all be contaminated with bacteria that can cause waterborne illnesses in people. Common symptoms of waterborne illnesses include diarrhea, upset stomach, vomiting, eye/ear infections, and skin rashes.

To help protect yourself from waterborne illnesses, see the CDC's "Fact Sheet for Swimmers and Parents" .

For information about specific waterborne illnesses, see entries for Campylobacteriosis, Cryptosporidiosis, E. coli O157:H7, Giardiasis, Hepatitis A, Listeriosis, Legionellosis, Norovirus, Salmonellosis, Shigellosis, Typhoid Fever, and Yersiniosis.

Resources:

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 Yersiniosis
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 Question
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